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  • Mark 6:22 pm on September 18, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: app development, , marketing,   

    Apps and their users: a few initial ontological thoughts 

    It’s important to grasp how much the development cycle for apps and platforms differs from that of software from a previous era. The typical app will go through a far higher number of iterations than a comparable piece of software would have in a pre-smart phone era. There are numerous reasons for this ranging from changes in the operating system are more frequent through to the unpredictability of bugs in an operating environment encompassing numerous elements which are themselves changing. But the most interesting dimension of this continual iteration is the relationship to users it entails. There is a risk of frustrating the users with too many updates, as each one acted upon inevitably consumes time, resources and data, with the latter potentially being in short supply if the user cannot connect to wifi before undertaking the update. However too few updates implies a lack of responsiveness to the emerging community of users, one which might prove fatal if it eventually leads to App Store reviews being swamped with poor reviews and comments about a failure to update the software. Particularly when it comes to apps which involve a sustained relationship, such as cloud based note taking or productivity software, the accusation that a developer is lax in addressing problems or responding to user demands is liable to prove immensely off-putting. Therefore the app development process involves negotiating a relationship with an emerging community of users, iterating the project in real time in relation to a user game which is itself changing. The user group might be growing or shrinking it size. The average level of familiarity with the app might be increasing as users become committed, or it might be decreasing as a small cluster of sustained users are supplemented by an influx of new users whose engagement is at least heretofore shallow. Users might be growing in commitment as the app becomes part of their daily routines, or their decreasing engagement might be the canary in the coal-mine which marks the entry into the death cycle for a once promising service.

    There are many ways in which the user group might be changing at any specific moment in time and this has important implications for the epistemic predicament in which developers find themselves. How do they know what users want? How can they anticipate how users might react? The are two means through which these questions can be answered: the transactional data collected by the app which is available to developers and qualitative engagement with the user group through social media, e-mail or feedback within the app. As we’ve seen, the data collected within the app might appear to be nuanced in terms of the data points which are collected on a specific user but it it also restrictive in that its scope doesn’t extend beyond the app itself.

    However if developers are reliant on social media to manage relationships with their user group then they are inevitably subject to precisely the dynamics which we later analyse as the social media machine. If they use Twitter to engage with a user base then certain voices will be more prominent than others. Accounts with many followers, or a high ratio of followers to followed, will have more weight in the feedback they share than those which are less popular. The ephemeral nature of the platform means that feedback will tend to be offered in particular ways, such as being extremely brief and possibly impatient. A Facebook group has its own unpredictable dynamics, liable to attract only committed users but also to encourage them to express their views in certain ways. It might be that e-mail proves an effective means to interact with users, but there’s a higher threshold for engagement than other platforms. It’s easier and quicker to send a tweet to someone you have not spoken to before than it is an e-mail. It also creates the risk that the developer will receive long, possibly rambling e-mails, consuming more time than might otherwise be needed to discern what the take away message of the interaction should be. It’s not that one platform is intrinsically better than others for these purposes but rather that each involves a mixture of affordances and constraints, inflecting the relationship that its being built through the particular characteristics of the platform being used to build it.

    If we recognise these as two dimensions through which a platform firm builds a relationship with a community of users, it opens up the possible tensions that might exist between them. What if users in a Facebook group are telling you things about the platform which aren’t borne out by the data? What weight should be placed on individual experiences conveyed by e-mail compared to the aggregate trends which can discerned from monitoring user activity.

  • Mark 2:21 pm on March 1, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , marketing, ,   

    What images do universities use on Twitter and Instagram? 

    My notes on What image types do universities post online?

    Twitter has become a mainstream activity for universities in the UK and the US, with most institutions now having a presence. The platform has taken an image based turn over the last few years, since native photo sharing was introduced in 2011 and Twitpic et al vanished, in common with social media more broadly. This presents us with a question: what types of images do universities tweet? Emma Stuart, Mike Thelwall and David Stuart analyse the use of images by university twitter feeds in the UK and consider what this can tell us about how universities see the platform and how they seek to relate to the audiences found through it.

    This twitter activity is connected to rising competition, as universities compete against each other to increase enrolment following the reduction of government support. Social media offers a means for universities to differentiate themselves, including through the use of images which express a visual identity. Platforms differ in what they offer for this. As Stuart et al observe, Instagram images tend to “focus more on the aesthetics of individual images, whereas images on Twitter tend to supplement or complement the text of a tweet”.

    Their study is a companion to a 2016 investigation in which 51 Uk universities (out of 128 with multiple units of assessment in REF 2014) were found to have an Instagram account. It focuses on the Twitter presence of the same 51 in order to facilitate comparison. A random sample of 20 images was taken from a date range overlapping with Instagram activity (I presume for each university) to produce a final sample of 1,020 images. They undertook a content analysis using a coding scheme developed in a previous study of Instagram use within organisations by McNely (2012) given below. Images were classified based on their content, accompanying text and the interaction they generated.

    1. Orientating: “The primary focus of the image is of specific and unique university (and university associated) locations, landmarks, or artefacts (e.g., buildings/public areas/statues/university affiliated objects)” (4.8% of Twitter images, 14.3% of Instagram images)
    2. Humanising: “The primary focus of the image is of things that add more of a human character or element of warmth/humour/or amusement to the university’s identity” (20.9% of Twitter images, 31% of Instagram images)
    3. Interacting: “The primary focus of the image is centered around people interacting at university (and university associated) events rather than people merely posing for a staged photograph” (2.1% of Twitter images, 5.7% of Instagram images) 
    4. Placemaking: “The primary focus of the image is concerned with the university ‘placing’ their identity within locations or events” (2.7% of Twitter images, 12.8% of Instagram images)
    5. Showcasing: highlighting some event, success, course, service or product of the university (61% of Twitter images, 28.8% of Instagram images)
    6. Crowdsourcing: “The primary purpose of the image is that it has been posted with the intention of generating feedback, interaction, engagement, and online interaction with viewers/followers” (7.7% of Twitter images, 7.5% of Instagram images) 

    They found that 41.8% of images had no retweets, with an average of 2.7 retweets per image. It was interesting that showcasing images (most popular type) were significantly more likely to be retweeted than humanising ones (second most popular type) but I wonder how much of each can be explained in terms of staff and students at the university retweeting an expression of support or loyalty rather than an endorsement from those outside the institution? They found far more Twitter images than Instagram images overall from the time period under investigation (7,583 to 3,615) yet a few universities shared more images on Instagram. Does this suggest the influence of an Instagram enthusiast on a university’s comms team? They suggest the discrepancy has its roots in the norm of posting less on Instagram, the service being newer and the restrictions on how one can post to it.

    They suggest the popularity of showcase images on Twitter accords with it being an information source rather than networking tool. The two most popular categories of humanising and showcasing seem to be externally-orientated towards potential students. Interestingly, they suggest that not only might universities benefit from posting more of the other categories, doing so “could be aligned with the practice of content curation, whereby the staff member(s) in charge of the Twitter account would specifically attempt to highlight a range of interesting and meaningful content that they think would appeal to their followers”.

  • Mark 9:17 am on November 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , marketing, ,   

    Against university marketing 

    There’s a gently scathing inditement of university marketing in today’s WonkHE newsletter. I’ve been interested in university marketing for years, without ever having written properly on the topic. I find it fascinating to see how universities choose to position themselves to (imagined) publics, as well as what this positioning says about them and the context within which they work. As WonkHE observes, what’s striking about advertising (in the UK) is how familiar it all seems, making reference to their place within an imaginary league table without any evidence that students or employers care about this:

    Sector PR teams need to wean themselves off league tables and find more transparent ways to highlight their individual qualities. That’s the primary message falling out of six Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) rulings concerning different – yet somehow depressingly similar – advertisements from six universities.

    In each case the institution in question had sought to position itself towards the top of a largely imaginary league table. The use of sector jargon (what is a “modern university”? or an “arts university”?) and unqualified claims (who said you were “university of the year”? why?) serves, in the eyes of the regulator, only to confuse people further.

    Being slapped down for these practices isn’t just a bad look for the sector –- it’s bad marketing practice. There’s little evidence that students or employers care that you are in the top 5% of modern universities in the Greater Stroud Valley region, so why make the claims in the first place? It seems a risk not worth taking.

    We need a turn-around in university marketing practice because the current trajectory could lead us to some pretty appalling places. On pg 20 of her Lower Ed, Tressie McMillan Cottom observes how marketing related spending outstrips tuition at some for-profit colleges in the United States:

    If budgets are moral documents, the fact that some financialized for-profit colleges reportedly spent 22.4 percent of all revenue on marketing, advertising, recruiting, and admissions staffing compared with 17.7 percent of all revenue, on instruction speaks to the morals of financialization.

    I assume we’re a long way from this in the UK, though there is no comparative data available to the best of my knowledge. But the reasons for growth are structural, as Andrew McGettigan makes clear in The Great University Gamble:

    There are obvious inefficiencies in this competition as increasing resources have to be devoted to marketing and recruitment … The cost of financing higher education through the botched loan scheme means that the Treasury has insisted on an overall cap on student numbers. This creates a zero sum game where the sector is unable to expand overall and individual institutions are fighting for market share.

    The ‘depressing similarity’ of university advertising suggests this process is expanding in a similar way within otherwise different universities. Some of this activity reaches into areas where I can claim some expertise, such as the growth of viral videos which often create a backlash for the institution. But it strikes me the overarching process is one which is ripe for analysis, providing a productive lens through which we can investigate transformations underway within the university. For this reason, I find it hard not to welcome the ASA judgement, as well as to hope it leads to a different direction of travel in university marketing.

    I’d like to keep an Instagram of university advertising in the UK: https://www.instagram.com/theacceleratedacademy/

    Please get in touch if you have any pictures you’d like to contribute!

  • Mark 6:01 pm on November 10, 2015 Permalink
    Tags: , , marketing, reputation management, sentiment analysis   

    dealing with ‘detractors’ 

    An interesting snippet in Infoglut, by Mark Andrejevic, Loc 1404 describes how sentiment analysis is being deployed to deal with ‘detractors’:

    The goal is not to describe but to affect and effect – to stimulate word of mouth, to promote engagement and, in some cases, to thwart it. One sentiment analysis company, for example, promises, “Real- time tracking of ‘Detractors’ to minimize the impact and velocity of negative word- of- mouth.”  The press release does not indicate how such detractors are dealt with. Presumably the company has ways of drowning them out or pre- empting critique.

    This is potent stuff for my semi-serious design fiction (ish) project on techno-fascism. Detractors of a powerful brand might merely be ‘drowned out’ at present. But can we imagine other fates that might one day befall them?

  • Mark 11:55 am on April 23, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: internet marketing, marketing, ,   

    Is the murky world of internet marketing making me paranoid? 

    Is the murky world of internet marketing making me paranoid? Or does anyone else share my scepticism about this e-mail? I’ve edited out the name in case I’m wrong but the enclosed web address & twitter feed has no content on it.

    Good day Mark!

    I hope this email finds you well.

    My name is [x], an aspiring writer. I’ve been working on sharpening my skills for about 3 years now and having my work published online has been most helpful.

    I would like to inquire if you accept contributions on markcarrigan.net from guest authors? It would be an excellent opportunity to contribute an interesting piece that will bring value to both your site and your readers.

    Do check out some of my published works on Techie Doodlers and my personal blog. Any feedback about my writing would be awesome!

    Please let me know if you are interested. I am more than happy to send a couple of topic pitches or start writing my piece right away.

    Thanks and here’s hoping I hear back from you soon!

  • Mark 6:51 pm on March 22, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , energy companies, marketing, pr,   

    A case study in the contrivances of marketing: The @NPowerHQ Price Promise 

    Watching channel 4 this evening, I encountered the NPower Price Promise which communicates their guarantee to always let consumers know the cheapest tariff available to them:

    Except this ‘Npower Price Promise’ isn’t a deliberate policy to ‘stand up for customers’. It’s a requirement by the regulator that came into force on 26 August 2013:

    Give all their customers personalised information on the cheapest tariff they offer for them. This information will appear on each bill and on a range of other customer communications.


    This was required to be implemented by March 2014. So the self-congratulatory advertising campaign the company has launched seems in actuality to be an announcement that they’re belatedly complying with legislation.

    I’d love to know more about how these adverts came to be made and how much was spent on them. Should we expect more of this in the future? Large companies presenting regulatory requirements as beneficent corporate policy is certainly in keeping with the spirit of the age.

  • Mark 6:43 pm on August 12, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: marketing, ,   

    When marketers are too lazy to disguise their fill in the blanks 

    I didn’t realise “sociologicalimagination.org” emphasised the importance of “tutor”. It’s fun to learn stuff:

    I was surfing for quality websites which emphasizes the importance of “Tutor” and found “http://sociologicalimagination.org“.
    I’m writing up this mail just to get a hold of you for appreciating your good work on maintaining an informative & attractive website on the topic of “Tutor”.
    Actually I have just put together a cool infographic on the key points of “Tutor” techniques and to add more spices we also included the latest trends evolving around this topic.
    I thought someone like you who is already writing a lot about this topic will get some insights out of it. If you can be so generic and share it in your website, it may bring more traffic and add real visitors to your site.
    Revert back if you want to check it out.
    Is this algorithmic or solely idiotic?
  • Mark 5:11 pm on July 2, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , marketing, ,   

    10 ways to promote your university that don’t involve viral videos 

    I don’t like ‘viral videos’. I like many videos that have gone viral. But the notion of producing ‘viral videos’, with a deliberate strategy to engender virality, irritates me – it entrenches commodification of internet culture, often involves trying so hard that it doesn’t work and contributes to the blurring of the boundary between commercial and non-commercial contributions to the internet. When deployed for marketing, they attempt to highlight the specificity of an object but paradoxically obliterate this specificity by drawing on the most generic cultural forms in circulation – by their nature viral forms lend themselves to infinite substitutability and thus trivialise their object rather than valuing it.

    They particularly vex me in higher education because they’re one of the most distinctive expressions of marketization. They reflect a change in higher education marketing which can be traced directly to the government’s higher education ‘reforms’, with the sudden imperative to differentiate prompting an expansion of investment in marketing and communications – I’ve tried to argue, in a conference paper at WES 2013, that this creates a vested interest in intensifying what are fundamentally deleterious trends. I don’t think marcomms creates the trend but I think its expansion, as well as a growing centrality within institutions as a whole, creates incentives to discursively exaggerate the necessity of this activity, lobby for further investment and contribute to a marketing arms race which risks consuming ever greater proportions of university budgets:

    There are obvious inefficiencies in this competition as increasing resources have to be devoted to marketing and recruitment … The cost of financing higher education through the botched loan scheme means that the Treasury has insisted on an overall cap on student numbers. This creates a zero sum game where the sector is unable to expand overall and individual institutions are fighting for market share.

I’m not personally hostile to people working in communications (far from it) but I believe something is happening in UK universities that I find both sociologically interesting and politically worrying. I’m not advocating that we should resist viral videos or anything like that. I think they’re pretty inconsequential. But I do believe they reflect the aforementioned trends and that it would therefore be valuable to consider alternative ways in which universities and departments can promote their activity. So here are a few ideas, in a list I contemplated formatting in the style of BuzzFeed but couldn’t be bothered:

  1. Find innovative and engaging ways to highlight the work your PhD students are doing. Such as these ‘your PhD in 60 seconds’ videos that my university produced a couple of years ago.
  2. Help promote the research culture and facilitate the vibrant life of the institution. See informal events as a resource to be supported rather than an irrelevance or potential threat to the brand – put resources into improving internal communications, helping initiatives that come from staff & students then use what you’ve done as a selling point for the institution.
  3. Highlight the opinions of your students about the university rather than seeing them as a threat. RT positive comments but engage even with the comments that aren’t positive.
  4. Support a departmental presence on social media across the university. Encourage them to be engaged, answer queries and provide resources for this if necessary. See this as a practical contribution to enhancing ‘student experience’.
  5. Encourage your staff to use social media freely and help them build an audience through RTs, twitter lists and well advised departmental accounts.
  6. Provide training and drop in sessions for staff and students. Demonstrate the technical capacity of tools but also encourage debate around best practice.
  7. Support initiatives which profile your staff, particularly those who have been part of the institutions for a long time. Don’t trivialise these by reducing them to sanitised talking heads – take the lead from the staff themselves and let each project unfold by its own logic to the greatest extent possible. This is one of the best examples I’ve seen of this sort of activity.
  8. Encourage best practice by recognising and profiling staff who are active on social media and are using it to contribute to the life of the institution.
  9. Be open to aspects of your institutional identity which emerge naturally through social media. Some of these might not be positive and it would be a mistake to promote them. But don’t see this solely in terms of potential threats and instead engage with the online culture already in existence (and that grows through your encouragement) – otherwise you’ll miss important opportunities for the elaboration of institutional identity.
  10. Curate the content which is being produced within your institution and support the creation of further content! Encourage and support multi-author blogging. Track new social media initiatives and offer practical support. See this as content marketing from below.
  • Mark 6:55 pm on November 10, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , marketing,   

    Big Data Behaviourism 


    Screen shot 2013-11-10 at 18.52.13

    From Science Rock Stars



    • Roy Wilson 7:31 pm on November 10, 2013 Permalink


      I took a quick peek at the site. They are trying to machine learn (from their behavior) what people are likely to do. They are ‘explaining’ why people choose X rather than Y only in a probabilistic sense, if that even constitutes explanation. For their purposes, and those of their clients, maybe that’s enough. So, I’m not sure what you mean by ‘behaviourism’ or why, for the intended purpose, it is (if it is) a ‘bad, bad, thing’.


    • Mark 7:37 pm on November 10, 2013 Permalink

      By behaviourism I mean exactly what you say (but orientated towards ‘big data’ which is what I find it interesting) and I didn’t say it was a ‘bad, bad, thing’!

    • Roy Wilson 7:47 pm on November 10, 2013 Permalink

      Ok. Lacking ‘big data’ about you, I imputed to you a motive in order to ‘explain’ your penultimate blog post. Maybe I should use machine learning on your blog entries instead. 🙂

      I’ve heard dogs can infer intention from human behavior. As one character in a J. P. Donleavy novel said, “Bow Wow”.

    • Mark 7:48 pm on November 10, 2013 Permalink

      Oh I don’t think it’s a good thing either though…

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